I am voting negative on all ASTM Flooring &
Footwear Slip Resistance Ballots for the following reasons:
Both the U.S. National Standards Strategy and the National
Technology Transfer & Advancement Act of 1996 (NTTAA)
recognize the need for both market and people based standards.
The former are generally written by industry groups
establishing uniform product quality control within a given
industry. The people based standards require that the
"Public Safety" and "Public Health" of
people be improved and that the "Environment" be
protected. Voices of Safety International (VOSI) only writes
people based standards.
The National Institute of Standards & Technology
(NIST), responsible for enforcing the NTTAA, has established a
list of 210 private sector standards development organizations
(SDO's) which NIST recognizes as organizations whose standards
should be evaluated by all levels of government in accordance
with the NTTAA. Since NIST recognizes these SDO''s, all NIST
recognized organizations should in turn recognize each other
and evaluate and/or reference each others standards when
applicable. This is the basis for VOSI's request that ASTM
both recognize VOSI and evaluate its standards for reference
in ASTM standards.
Flooring and Footwear materials manufacturers should be
allowed the choice of using the people based VOSI slip
resistance standards which are independent of the conflicting
slip resistance needs of material manufacturers.
"Slip & Fall Standards"...
click on VOSI V41.23X,
"Standard for Slip Resistant Walkways, in the Field
and Laboratory, as Measured by a Drag Type Friction
Tester". Review this standard on line;
note the conflicting ASTM slip resistance standards in refs.
2.3 and 2.4.
Any materials parameter that affects the
public's safety and health, or the environment, must be
scientifically based (VOSI standards must have Research
Reports) and must be the best and only standard accepted for
reference by any standards development or government organization.
The F 06
Resilient Flooring subcommittee's slip
resistance ramp test, which cannot be used in
the field, has the same problem as the James Machine in ASTM
D2047. Any slip resistance test method must be able to be used
both in the field and the laboratory.
F 13, the ASTM designated gurus for slip
resistance standards, have never produced any performance based
standards for either flooring or footwear, and have added two dynamic friction test protocols
(only the SCOF is accepted in the U.S. judicial system), the
Brungraber Mark II and the English XL, to its already
conflicting list of slip resistance standards. Click on VOSI
V41.23Y to verify my statement. Bob Brungraber, Bill English
and I are all F13 members; they're on a pedestal, I'm usually
knocked down with their "Non Persuasive" solutions
to my many negative votes.
The ASTM Board of Directors formed a
"Board of Director's Task Group on Slip Resistance"
more than a year ago, under the chairmanship of ASTM Board
Chairman Don Marlowe. This task group was formed in order to
solve the problem of the many conflicting ASTM materials based
slip resistance test methods. The
F13 leadership is well represented on this task group, which
has not produced any results that I know of. The materials
based ASTM committees, that have existing slip resistance test
methods, are not willing to change their industry based slip
resistance testing requirements.
Universal Specification/Test Methods for testing flooring
materials are the only existing test methods that recognize
the variability of the simulated footwear materials used when
Pedestrian slip resistance is influenced by
both the footwear and the flooring, including any surface contaminates;
this presents two variables when the SCOF is measured. Simulated footwear material
(leather and Monarch EVA) must be "standardized" when measuring the SCOF of flooring
in order to eliminate the sensor variability which occurs due
to sanding the pads. In addition, standard test surfaces (polypropylene
& ASTM C1028 "Florida" Ceramic Tile) must be
used when testing the SCOF of footwear heels and soling.
Leather or simulated leather is used on polypropylene (dry)
and the "Florida" Ceramic Tile" when testing
rubber footwear materials (dry and wet). The same standard
test surfaces, which are used to standardize the simulated footwear
sensors when testing flooring, are used for testing footwear.
This test method which is specified in VOSI
Universal Specification/Test Methods eliminates
the major problem of all other test methods: failure to
utilize standard test surfaces when measuring flooring and
VOSI Standard V41.23D
"Standard for Exterior Slip Resistant Boardwalks
and Decks" references VOSI Research Report RR1, which
contains humidity correction factors from 20-95% relative
humidity (RH), in order that the SCOF, measured at non-laboratory
conditions, may be compared to the 50% RH specified for lab
testing. ASTM slip resistance test methods specify a 50%
laboratory RH; therefore, these test methods are invalid at
non-laboratory ambient conditions.
The objection to a manually operated drag type friction
tester has been eliminated since all operators of the
Technical Products Model 80
must be "Certified" before using this tester. The
average SCOF of 8 readings , leather/polypropylene secondary
standard test surface, must be within 0.02 of the value in my
log; the range must be less than or equal to 0.05.
Voices of Safety International "certifies that testing
labs use VOSV41.21 and/or V41.22 when testing whether flooring
and footwear are "slip resistant"." Ref. NIST
Special Publication 903, 2001 Edition "Directory of U.S.
Private Sector Product Certification Programs".
In conclusion, VOSI standards provide
Universal Specification/Test Methods that permit flooring
& footwear material manufacturers, forensic
engineers and others to test BOTH the flooring and the plaintiff's
footwear. This is the first time that footwear material
held responsible for the slip resistance of their shoe soling
I will only approve an ASTM slip resistance test method if it references
"Standard for Slip Resistant Walkways, in the Field
& Laboratory, as Measured by a Drag Type Friction
Tester" and/or VOSI V41.23Y,
"Standard for Slip Resistant Footwear, in the Field
& Laboratory as Measured by a Drag Type Friction